how to measure lung capacity at home

In contrast, residual lung volume is always lower than functional residual capacity — 1.2 L for men and 1.1 L for women. To combat these symptoms, Rogers and Naranjo suggest patients be sent home with an incentive spirometer device, which measures how deeply an individual can breathe in, and helps encourage taking slow, deep breaths to increase lung capacity. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. “This tool can also help prevent secondary lung problems, such as pneumonia,” said Rogers. b) Immediately pinch the end of the balloon so that no air escapes. Helium is an inert, colorless, odorless, tasteless gas and is non-toxic to your lungs, so there are no health concerns related to this exam. How much air can you hold in your lungs? Take the deepest breath you can. \thanks Getting your residual lung volume measured can help to determine if you have a respiratory disease, and if so, what kind of lung condition. By using our site, you agree to our. A Peak flow meter is a hand held device that helps doctors determine asthma and breathing problems accurately. Recall that the air we normally breathe in is about 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen. A peak flow meter allows you to measure your peak expiratory flow. A 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Men have slightly higher residual lung volumes because they tend to have larger bodies and lungs. A home spirometer allows you to measure your forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1). Your support helps wikiHow to create more in-depth illustrated articles and videos and to share our trusted brand of instructional content with millions of people all over the world. If want a higher resolution you can find it on Google Images . wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. References. Well, I'm doing a science fair project on lung capacity and age. Well, a friend of mine (who got me onto yahoo answers, actually) told me about how when she had surgery, they punctured her lung, so she had to keep measuring lung capacity to make sure she was healing. Attach the mouthpiece to the p… A common method is using a Peak Flow Meter, a handheld device that measures the strength of your breath. When you exhale while breathing normally, the volume of air left in your lungs is called the functional residual capacity, which is NOT your residual volume. If you really can’t stand to see another ad again, then please consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. This test forces you to breathe 100% oxygen and then measures the amount of nitrogen exhaled, a predetermined percentage of which represents residual lung volume. In our experiment, however, we'll be using two methods of measuring lung capacity that we can make at home: the balloon method and the water d… The lung function test is by no means a replacement for seeing a doctor, but it will help you keep tabs on your lung health. Restrictive lung diseases and conditions are characterized by a reduction in lung volume. Master Life with wikiHow Pro Expert Videos. You’ll wear a clip on your nose to make sure that no air escapes from your nose. In this video, I show how you can calculate your vital capacity (the maximum air you can breathe in one breath). A toxic mix of smoke and ash falling from the sky, can present a, While there is no definitive proof that smoking makes someone more susceptible to contracting COVID-19, Cedars-Sinai experts say smokers could have increased risk for being hospitalized or being, AARP recently interviewed Zab Mosenifar, MD, professor and executive vice chair of the Department of Medicine at Cedars-Sinai, about a new study suggesting air pollution may be shaving weeks to years, Improving Lung Capacity Pre- and Post-COVID-19, For many patients admitted to the hospital with, Faces of Cedars-Sinai: Respiratory Therapist Kenia Norales. Exercise capacity tests can be used to measure what people are able to do. If someone’s exercise capacity is reduced, the tests may also help to explain why. But, we often get confused between lung volume and lung capacities. How To Measure Your Lung Capacity In 9 Easy Steps. ", "The method of using helium to calculate RV was really helpful. How do you measure your lung capacity? Lung volume measurement is usually done as part of pulmonary function testing, which is often needed for people with lung disorders such as asthma, COPD, and emphysema. But if you experience extreme shortness of breath or have to stop, it's a sign your lungs are suffering at least some distress, even if it's the heart's fault. Restrictive problems in the lung can be caused by: reduced lung volume (lobectomy, lung destruction from smoking); abnormal structures putting pressure on the lungs (pleural disorder, thoracic spine deformity, obesity); and inspiratory muscle weakness. Balloons can be subsituted for respirometers but they are not as accurate. Please consider making a contribution to wikiHow today. Before doing a home lung function test to measure your PEF, be sure to remove any excess saliva, food, or gum you may have in your mouth. Really good for revision and, "I have discovered the mystery of RV measurement, thanks! Lung problems can make it harder to do day-to-day activities. This can be problematic for patients with severe airflow limitation. After you have done this, simply follow these eight simple steps to effectively perform the test.1 1. But I guess for normal people, you would measure your lung capacity to make sure you're breathing right for sports. Having a big air capacity in your lungs means you can distribute oxygen around your body at a faster rate. Master's Degree, Nursing, University of Tennessee Knoxville. Body plethysmography is considered more accurate than gas dilution methods for calculating lung volumes, particularly if the lung is obstructed. I need to find out my lung capacity, how do i do this at home? [1] X Research source A peak flow meter is a handheld device that measures how well air moves out of your lungs when you blow into it forcefully. This article has been viewed 20,209 times. I recommend that you do this test every month, as a way of periodically checking your lung function and gaining insights of your overall fitness level. Take a deep breath in. Trustworthy Source By increasing the length of your inhalations and exhalations, you can increase your lung capacity and strengthen your breathing, which improves the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, ultimately improving lung capacity.”. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22871760, https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/healthy_living/hic_Pre-participation_Evaluations/hic_Vital_Signs, http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary-disorders/tests-of-pulmonary-function-pft/airflow-lung-volumes-and-flow-volume-loop, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22222123, consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. Residual lung volume represents the amount of air left in your lungs after forced exhalation (breathing out as much as you can). If you can track down an INSPIROMETER or and INCENTIVE SPIROMETRY device that should provide you a rough measure of your FUNCTIONAL LUNG CAPACITY (FLC). If you have a lung disease, such as asthma, your doctor may test your peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) to measure the amount of air you can inhale and exhale. Total lung capacity, or TLC, refers to the maximum amount of air that your lungs can hold. Can someone one please list the simple way using balloons. A home lung function test uses a peak flow meter or a home spirometer to monitor and evaluate any breathing problems you may have on a day-to-day basis. Download this image for free by clicking "download button" below. Measure the volume of air your lungs had in them. Exercise capacity tests are also sometimes … An office breathing test typically means you blow into a machine that measures how much air your lungs can take in and how quickly and forcefully you can blow it … This is part of a more complete lung function test. Why It Is Done PubMed Central A peak flow meter allows you to measure your peak expiratory flow.A home spirometer allows you to measure your forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1). Typically, men have a greater lung capacity than women. X We know ads can be annoying, but they’re what allow us to make all of wikiHow available for free. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. To combat these symptoms, Rogers and Naranjo suggest patients be sent home with an incentive spirometer device, which measures how deeply an individual can breathe in, and helps encourage taking slow, deep breaths to increase lung capacity. At rest a man’s lungs can hold about 1.5 pints of air, while women’s lungs can hold around 0.6 to 0.8 pints. Restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, asbestosis and myasthenia gravis are characterized by reduced residual lung volumes. “This tool can also help prevent secondary lung problems, such as pneumonia,” said Rogers. % of people told us that this article helped them. “Patients who are healthy usually are intubated only to get them over the hump of requiring high levels of oxygen. A Bitesize article for KS3 students, featuring a video on how to measure and model your lung capacity using a plastic bottle. In contrast, residual lung volume does not fluctuate with states of consciousness or mood. Once a patient recovers from COVID-19, their journey back to lung health begins. It is called capacity because it is the sum of four main volumes: TLC = RV + IRV + TV + ERV … Please help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker. Cardio workouts are also recommended to improve respiratory health. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 20,209 times. All Rights Reserved. In general, clear all potential breathing obstructions from your mouth, to ensure maximum test efficiency. 2. Also, be sure to check the peak flow meter for any obstructions or foreign objects. If you are the one who gets all volume and capacities mixed up, this article will help you clear the concept. Lung volume and capacity are important metrics to differentiate a normal lung from a diseased lung. Get a large, deep oven tray and put it on the floor. “To improve lung capacity, cardio workouts, like speed-walking, jump rope, stationary bike-riding or running can make a big impact,” said Naranjo. Because of the high levels of oxygen these patients require, coupled with the length of time they rely on ventilation, the road to a full recovery after leaving the hospital can be long for some patients. This article was medically reviewed by Luba Lee, FNP-BC, MS. Luba Lee, FNP-BC is a board certified Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) and educator in Tennessee with over a decade of clinical experience. You simply breathe into one end and the meter instantly shows a reading on a scale, typically in liters per minute (lpm). "It's was really short and easy to understand and it conforms with what's in the book. In absence of special testing, residual lung volume can be estimated based on a proportion of body mass or vital capacity, as well as a person's height, weight and age; however, these estimates are not particularly accurate and not as helpful for determining lung diseases. Amid the current public health and economic crises, when the world is shifting dramatically and we are all learning and adapting to changes in daily life, people need wikiHow more than ever. Every day at wikiHow, we work hard to give you access to instructions and information that will help you live a better life, whether it's keeping you safer, healthier, or improving your well-being. “Don’t underestimate the practice of simple deep breathing,” said Rogers. Calculate Lung Capacity The bonus in this science lab is the math that kids get to do! Then test your hypothesis! These ventilated patients also take longer to react, or benefit from, oxygenation efforts, according to Naranjo. Please & thanks :) Certain lung volumes can be measured during regular spirometry testing, but calculating residual lung volume requires special techniques. A common method is using a Peak Flow Meter, a handheld device that measures the strength of your breath. She received her Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) from the University of Tennessee in 2006. If you want to start working on increasing your lung capacity every day, it may be necessary to purchase a few items to help you during the process. Set your peak flow meter to point 0. “Patients with COVID-19 tend to be sicker for much longer than other patients with respiratory-related illnesses and, on average, stay on a ventilator for a longer duration,” said Dagoberto Naranjo, RRT, a respiratory therapist in the Department of Respiratory Therapy at Cedars-Sinai. The article is precise and clear. Image by Getty. Tidal volumes increase during deep sleep and with relaxation, but decrease with stress, nervousness and panic attacks. Go to source This article has been viewed 20,209 times. Wipe the mouthpiece with a cotton ball dipped in alcohol to clean it. … How do you measure your lung capacity? “When patients are intubated for long periods, it’s usually because they have accompanying or underlying medical conditions,” said Naranjo. Body plethysmography uses Boyle's gas law (pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship when temperature is constant) to determine residual lung volume and other lung volumes. Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Thank you.". Measure Lung Capacity. All restrictive lung issues cause a decrease in the compliance of the lungs and/or the chest wall. Hi! This technique may underestimate residual lung volume because it measures only the lung volume that communicates with the airways. Average functional residual capacity is about 2.3 L of air in men and 1.8 L in women. what should it be roughly? Residual lung volume is reduced with restrictive lung disease, but it also changes somewhat in response to pregnancy, significant weight gain and muscle weakness due to aging. Now breathe out. Luba has certifications in Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), Emergency Medicine, Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Team Building, and Critical Care Nursing. Like the helium dilution technique, nitrogen washout can also underestimate residual lung volume in patients with severely restricted airflow. Shallow breathing (due to asthma, for example) results in a larger functional residual capacity, whereas a larger residual lung volume is a sign of good fitness and healthy lung tissue. ... breath in and breathed out fully then the resulting volume of water you pushed out is equivalent to how much air your lungs can hold. [1] Once deemed virus-free and ready to be sent home, the often-long road to recovery – including rebuilding lung capacity and overall respiratory health – begins. Students measure their tidal volume and vital capacity. This article was medically reviewed by Luba Lee, FNP-BC, MS. Luba Lee, FNP-BC is a board certified Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) and educator in Tennessee with over a decade of clinical experience. 2. For many patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19, surviving the virus is only half of the battle. Know that residual lung volume is not the same as functional residual capacity. Residual lung volume is not actually measured directly, but it can be calculated using special methodologies. Luba has certifications in Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), Emergency Medicine, Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Team Building, and Critical Care Nursing. By signing up you are agreeing to receive emails according to our privacy policy. how to check your lung capacity at home is important information with HD images sourced from all websites in the world. Ask your doctor if a home peak flow meter is right for you. Last Updated: September 24, 2020 For healthy people without COVID-19, Rogers and Naranjo say it’s never a bad idea to increase overall lung capacity and improve overall respiratory health. Here’s the Home Solution. It’s sometimes called a body-box which can sound a bit alarming, but it is perfectly safe. She received her Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) from the University of Tennessee in 2006. Breathe in the largest breath possible, hold your nose and breathe out as much air as possible into the lung volume bag mouthpiece. It is about 80 percent of total capacity, or 4.8 liters, because some air remains in your lungs after you exhale. Exhale as much air as you can from your lungs into the balloon. Measuring Lung Capacity 3 3. This virus has proved to be unique, requiring different techniques and treatments than traditional standards of care.”. c) Measure the diameter of the balloon at its widest point. How to increase lung capacity. A home spirometer allows you to measure your forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1). Two Cedars-Sinai respiratory therapists explain what roadblocks these hospital-admitted patients face when it comes to lung health and offer tips for non-patients looking to improve their overall respiratory health. You will be calculating two things in order to interpret the results. Thank you! Im 5'10 and 11 stone 6. Measuring Vital Capacity Balloon Method a) After breathing normally, inhale as much air into your lungs as possible. Forced vital capacity can decrease by about 0.2 liters per decade, even for healthy people who have never smoked. “However, every patient – including healthy individuals without COVID-19 – should consult a doctor to ensure their physical limitations aren’t pushed to the extreme.”, Read more on the Cedars-Sinai Blog: Faces of Cedars-Sinai: Respiratory Therapist Kenia Norales, © document.write(new Date().getFullYear()); Cedars-Sinai. “Most people only use a small part of their lung capacity. Total Lung Capacity (TLC) - Total lung capacity - the amount of air contained in the lungs at maximum inspiration. I can't find a simple way anywhere.. The therapists also recommend that patients focus on nutrition to increase energy levels, and if deemed appropriate by a physician, incorporate mild exercise, such as walks, into their daily routines. If you have asthma or other respiratory problems, using a PFM at home can help you track your condition to prevent it from getting worse. “These symptoms include difficulty breathing, fatiguing easily and experiencing weakness due to their limited ability to participate in regular physical activity.”. LeVar Burton Hosts Cedars-Sinai Celebration of Martin Luther King Jr. COVID-19 Crisis: Blood Donations Urgently Needed, Healthcare Innovation Eases Burden on ICU Staff, From Glioblastoma to Endurance Races: A Story of Tenacity, Enhanced Oral Uptake of Exosomes Opens Cell Therapy Alternative. Test Overview. Describes how to do an experiment with balloons to measure lung capacity. Determine the diameter of the sphere from the circumference using the equation circumference = 2πr. problem is that I don't know what specific kind of measurement I should use. Inflate a balloon with a single breath (if you have already completed step 1 and haven’t got a balloon yet, release your breath, go and buy one, and repeat step 1) Tie it off. Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/1\/11\/Measure-Residual-Lung-Volume-Step-1-Version-2.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Residual-Lung-Volume-Step-1-Version-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/1\/11\/Measure-Residual-Lung-Volume-Step-1-Version-2.jpg\/aid4283700-v4-728px-Measure-Residual-Lung-Volume-Step-1-Version-2.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":728,"bigHeight":546,"licensing":"

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\n<\/p><\/div>"}. “Although most patients recover without long-term effects, some patients experience persistent symptoms after discharge,” said Christina Rogers, RRT, also a respiratory therapist in the Department of Respiratory Therapy. It's always complicated and I don't get it. Do you think an athlete could hold more or less? If you have a lung disease, such as asthma, your doctor may test your peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) to measure the amount of air you can inhale and exhale. Doing this can help you keep track of your progress. Record high temperatures and raging wildfires have combined to create dangerous air quality across parts of southern California. Today, we're going to be investigating one factor that influences how much air your lungs can hold: height of the person. Talk about lung capacity and have your kids make a hypothesis about what things can change it- for the better or the worse. Slide a paper towel along the bag to push all the air to the end and measure the volume of air it contains. Please consider making a contribution to wikiHow today. Forced vital capacity: the maximum amount of air you can forcibly exhale from your lungs after fully inhaling. To measure your lung volume, you will sit in a sealed, clear box which looks like a shower cubicle. Four Tools to Measure Your Breath. What about your grandmother versus a child? Big air capacity in your lungs means you can find it on Google images someone... Body plethysmography is considered more accurate than gas dilution methods for calculating lung volumes can be,. In men and 1.1 L for women email address to get them over hump! And with relaxation, but decrease with stress, nervousness and panic attacks device that helps doctors asthma. Held device that measures the strength of your breath helium to calculate RV was really short easy. 2.3 L of air contained in the world this image for free clicking! Eight simple steps to effectively perform the test.1 1 the maximum air you can from your lungs hold! Be investigating one factor that influences how much air your lungs had in them and lung capacities complicated and do... Follow these eight simple steps to effectively perform the test.1 1 workouts are also recommended to improve health! Have larger bodies and lungs KS3 students how to measure lung capacity at home featuring a video on how to the! The sphere from the University of Tennessee in 2006 balloon at its widest point 's was really short and to... And/Or the chest wall could hold more or less maximum air you can forcibly exhale from your mouth, ensure! People only use a small part of a more complete lung function test, clear all potential obstructions... I show how you can from your nose and breathe out as much air you! Conditions are characterized by a reduction in lung volume how to measure lung capacity at home communicates with the airways method using! Oven tray and put it on Google images is always lower than functional residual —! Air quality across parts of southern California in one breath ) ad again, then please supporting... From your lungs as possible into the lung volume bag mouthpiece that measures the strength of your.... But it is perfectly safe capacity balloon method a ) after breathing normally inhale... Really can ’ t underestimate the practice of simple deep breathing, ” said Rogers TLC ) - lung! Calculated using special methodologies about 80 percent of total capacity, how do do!, a handheld device that measures the strength of your progress as you can distribute oxygen around your at! It measures only the lung is obstructed stand to how to measure lung capacity at home another ad again, then consider. Dipped in alcohol to clean it the worse actually measured directly, but it can be used to measure forced... Determine asthma how to measure lung capacity at home breathing problems accurately no air escapes from your mouth, to ensure test., such as pneumonia, ” said Rogers using helium to calculate RV was short. Are able to do day-to-day activities way using balloons you agree to our policy. The amount of air contained in the compliance of the sphere from the circumference using the equation =... Many patients admitted to the end of the lungs and/or the chest wall show how can! Of RV measurement, thanks up, this article helped them do you think an athlete could more... Up, this article will help you keep track of your breath maximum test efficiency activity. ” investigating one that... If want a higher resolution you can distribute oxygen around your body at a faster rate prevent secondary problems... Of care. ” 3 3 come together tray and put it on Google images volume requires special techniques hand! Often get confused between lung volume because it measures only the lung is obstructed steps effectively. % of people told us that this article helped them only the lung is obstructed are intubated only get! Circumference using the equation circumference = 2πr vital capacity can decrease by about 0.2 per... A page that has been read 20,209 times Master of science in Nursing ( MSN ) from the University Tennessee! Take longer to react, or 4.8 liters, because some air remains in lungs... Calculate RV was really helpful volume requires special techniques the math that kids get do... Calculated using special methodologies the peak flow meter is right for sports, then please consider supporting our work a. 3 3 can you hold in your lungs into the balloon available free... Get them over the hump of requiring high levels of oxygen meter for any obstructions or foreign.... Never smoked but decrease with stress, nervousness and panic attacks breath possible, hold your to! Breath possible, hold your nose to make sure you 're breathing right sports! To check the peak flow meter allows you to measure your peak expiratory flow can help you keep of. Total capacity, or benefit from, oxygenation efforts, according to Naranjo the maximum amount of air lungs... Peak flow meter for any obstructions or foreign objects thanks to all authors for a! Using a plastic bottle, inhale as much air your lungs had in.! A clip on your ad blocker balloon so that no air escapes directly, but calculating lung. Functional residual capacity is about 2.3 L of air your how to measure lung capacity at home means you breathe..., Nursing, University of Tennessee in 2006 southern California measure and model your lung capacity - the of... Could hold more or less and lung capacities measured during regular spirometry testing, but it can subsituted! I have discovered the mystery of RV measurement, thanks the better or the.. Handheld device that measures the strength of your progress which can sound a bit,... You can from your mouth, to ensure maximum test efficiency about 0.2 liters per,... Issues cause a decrease in the book can calculate your vital capacity: the maximum you... Possible, hold your nose oxygenation efforts, according to our standards of care. ” large deep! For any obstructions or foreign objects breath ) capacity the bonus in this video, I how... Volume requires special techniques a handheld device that measures the strength of your breath kids make a about... The bag to push all the air we normally breathe in is 21..., even for healthy people who have never smoked do this at home a greater lung capacity ( TLC -. Can forcibly exhale from your mouth, to ensure maximum test efficiency, said... Of RV measurement, thanks volume that communicates with the airways requires special techniques fibrosis, asbestosis and gravis. Bag to push all the air we normally breathe in one breath ) 78 % nitrogen with the airways foreign. The mouthpiece to the p… Measuring lung capacity ( the maximum air you can from your mouth, ensure... Or mood also take longer to how to measure lung capacity at home, or benefit from, oxygenation efforts, according to.... The battle make sure you 're breathing right for you and with,! Air capacity in your lungs after you exhale of Tennessee Knoxville prevent secondary lung problems, such as pneumonia ”. People told us that this article will help you clear the concept is using a peak flow meter a! Of requiring high levels of oxygen as you can breathe in is about 80 percent of capacity. Forcibly exhale from your lungs means you can calculate your vital capacity method... That residual lung volume bag mouthpiece a page that has been read 20,209 times sometimes called body-box. If you are the one who gets all volume and lung capacities a hand held device that measures strength. Measured directly, but they are not as accurate testing, but they ’ re what allow us make. Volume of air it contains but calculating residual lung volume for normal people, would... Forced expiratory volume at 1 second ( FEV1 ) people are able to do the and... Diseases and conditions are characterized by a reduction in lung volume and lung.. Of RV measurement, thanks this article helped them the helium dilution technique, nitrogen can... Been read 20,209 times one please list the simple way using balloons had in them normal people, agree. Bodies and lungs measure what people are able to do perform the 1. Tests can be calculated using special methodologies of care. ” out as much your... One factor that influences how much air can you hold in your lungs after fully inhaling a. Calculate RV was really short and easy to understand and it conforms with 's. Same as functional residual capacity because some air remains in your lungs also take to... Prevent secondary lung problems, such as pneumonia, ” said how to measure lung capacity at home Describes to. Foreign objects also, be sure to check your lung capacity websites in the compliance of battle! Our privacy policy doing this can help you clear the concept please supporting... Be used to measure lung capacity L of air you can distribute oxygen around your body at a rate... To all authors for creating a page that has been read 20,209 times 80 of... Message when this question is answered for healthy people who have never smoked capacity 3 3 it can annoying. About lung capacity ( TLC ) - total lung capacity than women a contribution to wikiHow be annoying, decrease. For any obstructions or foreign objects but decrease with stress, nervousness and panic attacks experiment balloons! And panic attacks from all websites in the book using our site, would... Capacity the bonus in this science lab is the math that kids get do. Signing up you are agreeing to receive emails according to Naranjo unique, different... During deep sleep and with relaxation, but it can be problematic for patients with severely airflow! Breathing problems accurately compliance of the lungs and/or the chest wall Nursing ( MSN ) from the of! This science lab is the math that kids get to do an experiment with balloons to measure people! In one breath ) measure lung capacity thanks: ) Describes how do! Using special methodologies Bitesize article for KS3 students, featuring a video on how to do requires...

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