Jogaila and Jogailė. nom. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, Sg. Latin pl. The word didis has more mingled forms: nominative is sometimes didus; genitive masc. The dual number has its specific inflections, that are similar with plural inflections with some specific differences: Inflections, that have two or more syllables, are often shortened in Lithuanian, eliding the final short vowel. Lithuanian female surnames are unique in the world for having different versions based on marital status: they end in "-aitė", "-ytė", "-ūtė" or "-utė" for unmarried women and " … Gothic wato n – water: pl. When these Latin endings succeeded a labial sound, their vowel was originally ŏ: equos – horse, equom; servos – slave, serf, servom. namiẽ – at home (namè – in the house). sg. geràsis – that good one), juõ (nom. Such a shift is a mistake of declension. = 'John!' Nouns having -j- before an ending -as, vėjas – wind, vertėjas – translator (versti – translate; convert; subvert etc. part of nouns of the second declension (whose singular nominative ends with, adjectives of the first declension (their feminine forms), adjectives of the second declension (their feminine forms, the palatalized sub-paradigm), all passive (the main sub-paradigm) or active (the palatalized sub-paradigm) participles (feminine), all ordinal numbers (feminine forms, the main sub-paradigm), (feminine) cardinal numbers, that are used in plural, except a number, Words of the palatalized sub-paradigm may have. There are also two feminine nouns of the fifth declension: sesuo (sister) and duktė (daughter). Lithuania’s Independence Day, which Lithuania celebrates on 16 February, is like a bridge that connects two Lithuanias – the old one born in 1253 and the newly restored independent Lithuania of 1990. Prussian sg. Examples of migrants from the third declension (-is, -ies) are, for example, dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. A number of unrelated families (sometimes hundreds of them), usually with a number of different family names, may use a coat of arms, and each coat of arms has its own name. The u-paradigm has two different sub-paradigms, the main and the palatalized. Such names followed the rules of the Lithuanian language; therefore it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the name is fictitious and had never existed before. akmenes, akmens. (The Formation Of Tatar Naming Practices in Lithuania in the 15th–17th centuries), This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 07:59. The dialectal and older form sesuva (a type of sesuo), for example, can remain in the original paradigm with sg. Although virtually extinct following the Christianization of Lithuania, they continued to exist as surnames, such as Goštautas, Kęsgaila, Radvila or in their Slavicised versions, as well as in toponyms. What is Lithuania - a country that was built over thousands of years? nom. In the right outside column the variant forms within the fifth and third declensions are given. Notably, Gražina, Živilė by Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others. The Slavs did not create the name they used the existing Lithuanian ethnonym. Lithuanian name endings. In additions to modern names, parents normally choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names which may be: 1. a Lithuanianname of pre-Christian origin. A married woman usually adopts her husband's name. Similar case is with the masculine words of the third declension – they are sometimes declined in the first declension (because singular nominative is the same). A number of surnames are diminutives of popular first names.. The nominative singular ending -ias (sg. For female names this may be -elė, -utė, -ytė, or -užė; certain suffixes are more common to specific names over the rest. Table cells with the correct forms written are coloured (not white). Family names first appeared in Lithuania around 1500, but were reserved for the Lithuanian nobility. Feminine nouns ending in -a, and masculine ending in -us have their palatal forms: -ia, -ius (the latter is declined in the first paradigm in its plural). The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in masculine. (sg. nom. Men’s surnames typically end in -us, -as, or -ys, as in Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys. Lithuanian surnames, like those in most of Europe, are hereditary and generally patrilineal, i.e., passed from the father to his children. sg., an ending -uo is also known in dialects. Lithuanian male and female names are distinguished grammatically. acc. Perhaps this is the reason that various surnames share a coat of arms. didūs; other forms are of the regular pattern. The inflection in singular vocative follows the inflection of the singular nominative too: There are few pronouns, that don't use the a-paradigm: The a-paradigm (the main sub-paradigm) is used with all ordinal numbers in masculine and with all collective numbers. butan – the same meaning, Lat. It is the most ancient layer of Lithuanian personal names; a majority of them are dual-stemmed personal names, of Indo-European ori… Lithuanian instrumental -u derives from an older -uo, what is seen, for example, in pronominal (definite) adjective forms, pronouns: gerù (nom. Family name affixes are a clue for surname etymology and can sometimes determine the ethnic origin of a person. All these words use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns of the first declension, which apply the suffixed sub-paradigm. cases (sg. Lithuanian Surname endings By genealogy.com user August 22, 2000 at 05:51:51 Information for all. a) according to pronunciation and without grammatisation (i.e. A word сынъ is given in Old Slavonic cases. Perhaps it would be a good idea to note this for future reference. Therefore many Lithuanian family names have the Slavic patronymic ending -avičius, -evičius. nom. Some other forms have variations in the standard language: pė́sčias, pėsčià, pė́sčia – pedestrian, afoot; pėsčiàsis, pėsčióji and pėstỹsis, pėsčióji (adjectival and substantival meanings). The -ias pattern is a type of -ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, except sg. There are few of -uonis words and only several of them have forms other than the original declension, but in a speech some of them are also sometimes declined in the first declension, for example, geluonis, -ies c – sting, can be understood as geluonis, -io m. For the -uo words (except mėnuo) and the -is words (like dantis) the shift to the other declensions would be a mistake. The past tense doesn't have the long forms. adding Lithuanian endings). Lithuanian male names have preserved the Indo-European masculine endings (-as; -is; -us). The letter i represents either the sound similar to i in the English lit or is a palatalization marker – softens the preceding consonant (ia = like e, iu = ü, io = ö; all samples where i is a softhening marker are ia (ią), iu (iū, ių), io). . There are some popular names of gods and goddesses from Lithuanian mythology that are used as personal names, such as Laima, goddess of luck, Žemyna, goddess of earth, Gabija, goddess of fire; Žilvinas, a serpent prince from the fairy tale Eglė the Queen of Serpents, Jūratė, goddess of the sea, and Kastytis, from the legend about Jūratė and Kastytis. Their sons would inherit the father’s surname, unchanged. Narrowed more, it becomes ū. Note that the -e ending for the vocative singular applies only to common nouns; proper nouns take the ending -ai. Some words in the standard language retain their dual forms (for example du ("two") and abu ("both"), an indefinite number and super-plural words (dauginiai žodžiai in Lithuanian). They usually derived from patronymics. valdžià 'power (on somebody); government', m. sg. Only two nouns end in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. ), ли́па / lipa (Rus.) This fashion of creating names was propagated by the Lithuanian author, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas. Sg. Informal forms of address are normally used only by relatives, close friends and colleagues. liepą and liepų (Lith. gen. paties is often said pačio and these two forms of sg. Prussian sg. sg. gen.) akmenis, akmenies – more like older dialectal not used widely and a little likely to be heard in a speech – and (first d.) akmenis, akmenio; akmenys, akmenio; akmenas, akmeno – sometimes said by the speakers, who don't know the fifth declension well, for example, children. gen. akmenes, pl. For example, seseris can be said seseria in dialects, but the genitive remains sesers; (older) motė, moters, but also a migrant form: (older) motė, motės. The name endings provide the researcher with a useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried.  The existing surnames and written sources have allowed linguists such as Kazimieras Būga to reconstruct these names. gẽras – good) and gerúo-ju (nom.  Nevertheless, the Lithuanian law and regulations concerning the Lithuanian language do not allow for such a change with respect to documents issued in Lithuania. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. However, not every pronoun is declined, using the inflections from the pronoun column in the table below. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as, -ys or -is, its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė, -utė, -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones. Due to differences in masculine and feminine endings, there are no "universal names" which could be used for both males and females. A word šuo – dog, differs from the other -uo words in that, that its stem is mixed with the suffix -uo and it consequently does not have the suffix -en- in the other cases (š-uo, akm-uo; šu-n-į, akm-en-į), its singular instrumental normal ending is of the third type (šunimi; that can be understood as a part of a meaning: more like an indefinite gender) and its accentuation paradigm is fourth, the sole case for the -uo words. The most striking peculiarity of the historical Lithuanian heraldic system, which was adopted from the Polish one in the Union of Horodlo in 1413, is that a coat of arms does not belong to a single family. sg. So a word dariusi - 'who was making, who has made' can be said as darius. In Lithuanian language adjectives have three declensions determined by the singular and plural nominative case inflections. Such shortening is present in western and northern Lithuanian dialects: tėvas, -o – father, and tėvs, -o; dagas, -o – heat of the sun (from degti – to burn), and dags, -o. aedificium – building. nom. A word šuo can also be said šuva (one of dialectal variants). While a masculine surname usually ends in -as , -ys or -is , its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė , -utė , -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones. This beautiful name means ‘Iiestimable’. For the modern, independent woman who doesn’t want a name derived from that of a man’s, linguists suggest one derived from a Lithuanian place-name or body of water: Agluona, Alanta, Aluona, Beržuna, Dabinta, Deimena, Eisra, Gausante, Guoste, Indraja, Lieda, Neringa, Nida, Rusne, Svalia, Ula, Upyna, Vaigeta, Venta, Vilija, Žeimena, or one of a thousand others. The words pats m, pati f – one/my/him/her/itself (also noun meanings: husband and wife) have also peculiarities. Note, that the inflection of the plural genitive is palatalized (-ių). The noun pati is the same to a pronoun pati 'herself; myself, Duktė 'daughter' is the only word of the fifth declension not having the ending "uo". The u-paradigm is masculine. However, in a list of people sorted alphabetically by surname, the surname usually comes first. svẽčias 'guest', fem. There are only a few words with the ending -ias (sg. Surname This article needs additional citations for verification. -us is known from Elbing vocabulary, it was shortened to -s in Catechisms. Other cases than the singular nominative always have a suffix, J. Marvan. Males can have their surnames appended with: -as, -is, -ys, -us, -e or -a. -ų. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. The usage of personal names in Lithuania is generally governed (in addition to personal taste and family custom) by three major factors: civil law, canon law, and tradition. of a person. The word dieveris, -ies (-ers) m, having more close meaning to a proper one, possibly has the fifth-type-like masculine singular instrumental (dieveriu), which is taken from the first declension, while the words of the third declension have -imi (dantimi, vagimi), without a gender distinction. A word moteris 'woman, female' often has a genitive móters; the plural genitive of moteris is moterų (not palatalized -ių); it is the only normal form for the fifth declension and one of the two (the main is -ių) for the third. Also, as in many other cultures, a person may informally use a nickname (pravardė) in addition to or instead of a given name. dat. So, for example Jonas = 'John' [nominative] and Jonai! Jūratė Čirūnaitė, "Lietuvos totorių pavardžių formavimasis XV–XVII a." List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm, Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison, Naujas požiūris į lietuvių kalbos daiktavardžio linksniavimo tipus pagal natūraliosios morfologijos teoriją, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_declension&oldid=997365322, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles with Lithuanian-language sources (lt), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. nom. Its feminine form pati is declined with the o-paradigm regularly. of the Lithuanian Language, Lithuania) Prof. dr. Alvydas Butkus (Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, Lietuva • Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania) Dr. Kazimieras Garšva (Lietuvių kalbos institutas, Lietuva • Institute of the Lithuanian, dat.-abl. The names and surnames of the persons However, many names used in today's Lithuania have been in use since the ancient times. Masculine adjectives of the III-rd paradigm are of two types, they differ in plural nominative and dative: varinis – copper, brazen, laukinis – wild have pl. dat. Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. The word žmogus – man, human, historically had the nominative singular žmuo (compare Latin homō). The dative singular, similarly to the fifth declensional type, differs depending on the gender (-iai f, -iui m), the instrumental singular, differently from the fifth type, is the same for the both genders. Unlike nouns, which have two genders – masculine and feminine – adjectives have three (except -is, -ė adjectives), but the neuter adjectives (the third example in the table) have only one uninflected form. liepa (Lith.) If naudotojas would have and ending -e for vocative it would sound same to feminine: naudotoja = *naudotoje (ja = *je, which is not used combination, because all vowels succeeding j are soft). instr. For example, among the variant forms of singular nominative sesuo within the fifth declension are archaic sesuoj, sesuon, sesuva. It is one of the most complicated declension systems among modern Indo-European and modern European languages. The words of the third declension (-is, -ies) have either -ių or -ų in the genitive plural. The use of Christian names in the Lithuanian language long predates the adoption of Christianity by Lithuanians. The second declension, -ė type. There is also a dual number, which is used in certain dialects, such as Samogitian. In Prussian there existed only a shortened form, and it developed one step further in a part of the nouns: kaimis / kaimⁱs – village < kaims < kaimas (Lith.