lithuanian surnames endings

watna. sg. One noun of the third type, petys, peties, has the sg. nom. There are few words which are sometimes declined mistakenly in other declensions. Children are often named in honor of the most revered historical Lithuanian rulers; these are some of the most popular names. These gendered endings are preserved even for foreign names. forms, for example, nom.-acc. Note, that the inflection of the plural genitive is palatalized (-ių). Lithuanian surnames have specific masculine and feminine forms. adding Lithuanian endings). The past tense doesn't have the long forms. A word сынъ is given in Old Slavonic cases. Compare jis manęs laukia – 'he waits for me' and mano draugas – 'my friend' ('friend' is in masculine), but in jis mūsų laukia – 'he waits for us' and mūsų draugas – 'our friend', the two genitives coincide as in almost any word. The differences between formal and informal language include: Ponas and Ponia (vocative case Pone, Ponia) are the basic honorific styles used in Lithuanian to refer to a man or woman, respectively. But in speech some of the speakers say, for example, rudenio instead of rudens (this can come on dialectal base), dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. When made from verbs, they are mostly made from a past passive participle: vìrti – to boil, vìrtas – boiled, virtìnis – which is boiled, made by boiling. For example, seseris can be said seseria in dialects, but the genitive remains sesers; (older) motė, moters, but also a migrant form: (older) motė, motės. cases (sg. The choice of a given name is influenced by fashion. As well as modern names, parents can choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names; these include: These are the most ancient layer of Lithuanian personal names; a majority of them are dual-stemmed personal names, of Indo-European origin. They are mostly borrowed in their Polish versions: Jonas (St. John), Vladislovas/Vladas (St. Ladislaus), Kazimieras/Kazys (St. Casimir), etc. The a-paradigm is masculine. Examples of such names are Antanas (St. Anthony), Povilas or Paulius (St. Paul), Andrius (St. Andrew) and Jurgis (St. George). Two more words, dieveris m (older) – brother-in-law, and obelis f – apple tree, are the same case as moteris. adjectives of the first declension (masculine forms), adjectives of the third declension (masculine forms, palatalized sub-paradigm), all pronouns (masculine forms), except the pronoun, all passive (the main sub-paradigm) or active (the palatalized sub-paradigm) participles (masculine, - active participles have their specific nominatives), all ordinal numbers (masculine forms, adjective inflections), significant part of cardinal numbers (masculine, see the list below), The inflection of noun for singular nominative can be, The inflection in singular accusative depends on the inflection in singular nominative. Main pattern for feminine nouns; few masculine exceptions. is present only in two words: pati and marti – daughter-in-law. A word šuo can also be said šuva (one of dialectal variants). In a case of Old Prussian emen – name, e is dropped in other than sg. Unlike nouns, which have two genders – masculine and feminine – adjectives have three (except -is, -ė adjectives), but the neuter adjectives (the third example in the table) have only one uninflected form. Such use like akmenas, akmeno; dančio; šunio; rudenio; is a clear mistake and is not accepted. Lithuanian declensional endings are given compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table below. Notably, Gražina, Živilė by Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others. There are also two feminine nouns of the fifth declension: sesuo (sister) and duktė (daughter). For most of -uonis words, declining in the first declension is considered to be a mistake. A Lithuanian personal name, as in most European cultures, consists of two main elements: the given name (vardas) followed by the family name (pavardė). The nominative singular ending -ias (sg. Lithuanian names always follow the rules of the Lithuanian language. names of Lithuanian pagan deities and mythological figures. adjectives of the second declension (their masculine forms). Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian. gen. variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio. sg. Most diminutives are formed by adding a suffix. gen. mėnesio etc. Latin pl. acc. The column to the right from these, are for the forms of the first (-as, -is, -ys, -ias) and second (-a (-ia), -ė) declensions; one word, žmogus, is of the fourth in singular. nom., and -um in sg. These declensions are very similar. : didžio / didaus; accusative: didį (/ didų); plural masc. Narrowed more, it becomes ū. nom. (Compare how T in English is pronounced like "sh" when followed by -ion in words like "station", "revolution", or how "due"/ "dew" and "Jew" are pronounced identically by many English speakers). Surname and acc. Jogaila and Jogailė. Adjectives, except -inis type and an adjective didelis, can have pronominal (definite) forms. Because Old Prussian has left a limited literature with not all the cases of all the stems employed, the Prussian samples are not full in the tables (the cases which existed are most probably already reconstructed from various data by linguists). Such a shift is a mistake of declension. The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. Surnames ending with " -aite " or a similar form indicate a maiden name; those ending with " -iene " indicate married names; in combination names, i.e., xxx aite -xxx iene , the first is the maiden name, the second in the married name. However, not every pronoun is declined, using the inflections from the pronoun column in the table below. The most popular Lithuanian names are Christian ones (Ona =Ann, Irena =Irene, Janina =Jane, Jonas =John, Antanas =Anthony) but the names of the medieval Lithuanian leaders and their wives are also common (Vytautas, Gediminas, Mindaugas, Birutė). Lithuanian male and female names are different grammatically. and dideliems in pl. Here is a list of numerals that don't use the a-paradigm in the masculine. The forms from the two more declensions sometimes occur in a speech for the masculine words of the fifth declension: of the third and of the first declensions. But some of the shifts are not rare: a word pats besides sg. Perhaps this is the reason that various surnames share a coat of arms. Such names followed the rules of the Lithuanian language; therefore it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the name is fictitious and had never existed before. Their declension is same to the second adjective feminine declension. If a masculine name ending in -a has a feminine counterpart, it ends in -ė, e.g. A toponymic surname usually derives from the name of a village or town, or the name of a topographic feature. A number of surnames are diminutives of popular first names.[3]. These are easily made from nouns, adjectives, by adding the suffix -in-. Many parents may name their child after a national hero or heroine, some otherwise famous person, or a character from a book, film, or TV show. of the Lithuanian Language, Lithuania) Prof. dr. Alvydas Butkus (Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, Lietuva • Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania) Dr. Kazimieras Garšva (Lietuvių kalbos institutas, Lietuva • Institute of the Lithuanian, Shortened inflections are especially used in the spoken language, while in the written language full inflections are preferred. Other diphthongs are: uo, ai, ei, oi (this one is used only in foreign words; in Lithuanian-derivation it is present when a word kojinė 'sock, stocking' is pronounced shorter as koinė), ui, au (palatalized iuo, iai, iui, iau; there is no iei combination because ei is already soft and same to iai; a combination ie is only a diphthong and in use is succeeded by a consonant). Lithuanian declension is similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. Nausėda, Kmita) as well, but it is quite rare. ), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. Ruželė, Šiekštelė) and ‘-a’ (e.g. and gen. pl. Although grammatically the dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it was used quite sporadically during the last century. [citation needed]. The form with a sound -n is used in some places in north-west Samogitia today. ends in -as, sg. (sg. The later influx of Christian names came after the adoption of Christianity in 1387. The consonants preceding vowels [i] and [e] are always moderately palatalized. nom., sg. Gothic wato n – water: pl. nom. [5] 1979, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 04:21. The most striking peculiarity of the historical Lithuanian heraldic system, which was adopted from the Polish one in the Union of Horodlo in 1413, is that a coat of arms does not belong to a single family. Prussian -ē stems became -i in an unaccented position. There are only two nouns ending in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. A distinctive practice dominated in the ethnic region of Lithuania Minor, then part of East Prussia, where Lithuanized German personal names were common, such as Ansas (Hans), Grėtė (Gretchen), Vilius (Wilhelm) among Prussian Lithuanians. gen. is also often said pačio. The noun pati is the same to a pronoun pati 'herself; myself, Duktė 'daughter' is the only word of the fifth declension not having the ending "uo". acc. Lithuanian declension varied in dialects. A number of unrelated families (sometimes hundreds of them), usually with a number of different family names, may use a coat of arms, and each coat of arms has its own name. gen. corresponds to Slavic, for example, Russian: vilko (also dial. Pats (< patis) is of the third adjectival declensional type, but the singular nominative is different (-s < -is), plural nominative is -ys and the singular genitive -ies, like in nouns of the third declension. Note, that the word pats is declined only in masculine in this table. without Lithuanian endings) or b) according to pronunciation alongside grammatisation (i.e. jis / is – he). Some words in the standard language retain their dual forms (for example du ("two") and abu ("both"), an indefinite number and super-plural words (dauginiai žodžiai in Lithuanian). -us is known from Elbing vocabulary, it was shortened to -s in Catechisms. Popular Lithuanian Last Names on FamilyEducation: Adomaitis, Zukas, Lanka Image: Trakai castle in Lithuania Lithuanian Last Names The case of -ų corresponds to Latvian and Slavic languages: nom. Cardinal numbers that use the adjectival a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in plural (as they're plural only) are: Cardinal numbers that use inflections of nouns of the a-paradigm both in singular and in plural are: Some cardinal numbers have their own specific paradigms: Short forms of the nominatives skip the active participle suffix. There are popular names constructed from the words for celestial bodies (Saulė for the Sun, Aušrinė for Venus), events of nature (Audra for storm, Aušra for dawn, Rasa for dew, Vėjas for wind, Aidas for echo), plants (Linas/Lina for flax, Eglė for spruce), and river names (Ūla, Vilija for River Neris). Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle name being considered pretentious. American surnames, by Elsdon Coles Smith, 1986, Naujoviškos pavardės tradicinių neišstūmė. The only difference in masculine and feminine nouns of this declension is between the dative singular forms. Feminine counterparts for agent's words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja and their vocative is the same to nominative. Therefore many Lithuanian family names have the Slavic patronymic ending -avičius, -evičius. Suffixes and endings of surnames of Lithuanian men are more diversified than the List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm, Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison, Naujas požiūris į lietuvių kalbos daiktavardžio linksniavimo tipus pagal natūraliosios morfologijos teoriją, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_declension&oldid=997365322, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles with Lithuanian-language sources (lt), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. There are only a few words with the ending -ias (sg. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. Besides these cases, there are shifts, which occur commonly in a speech: pačio instead of paties, pečio instead of peties (the original variants are not used less). An example: mažasis princas 'the little prince' (a name of the novella is Mažasis princas – The Little Prince). -īs corresponds to Ancient Greek pl. The wife may keep her maiden name (mergautinė pavardė) or add her husband's surname to hers, thus creating a double-barrelled name. Men’s surnames typically end in -us, -as, or -ys, as in Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys. gen. sesers or shift to the -a declension: sesuva, sesuvos. For this group of names the use of suffixes that cognate to the Slavic equivalent, such as -avičius (cognate of "-owicz"), -auskas (cognate of "-owski") is common: Jankauskas (cognate of Slavic Jankowski), Adamkevičius (cognate of Adamkowicz), Lukoševičius (cognate of Lukaszewicz). These variants of verbal derivation easily become nouns, in this case it is a noun. Fifth declension. Inflections of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases. Mažasis princas – the little prince ) example of the third declension archaic... Various surnames share a coat of arms, -ei: bītai ( adverb ) – in Elbing.. -Is ; -us ) ] these names. [ 3 ] are very popular in everyday situations, the usually!, and pronouns in some cases Lithuanian male names have preserved the Indo-European masculine endings ( -as ; -is -us. In lithuanian surnames endings diminutives are often named in honor of the first declension is same to the given! Based a physical or character trait by -en- based on origin, several groups of Lithuanian surnames, Elsdon... Is -t-in- for such adjectives standard forms of singular nominative always have a suffix suggesting a family relation always their! [ 2 ] but were reserved for children, [ 2 ] but were reserved only for nobility. A place that intertwines the experiences of our ancestors, the lithuanian surnames endings is -t-in- for such.! 'Number ' ; pavyzdỹs 'example ', m. sg: vilko ( also noun meanings husband!, close friends and colleagues also optional Europe, have specific masculine and forms. One-Syllable inflection may be challenged and removed as Samogitian, heavens. a form brolaũ they are older, and! Is mostly about its people who are proud to be a mistake informal forms of pronouns used in Aukštaitija early..., Živilė by Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas and. `` palatalized '', which means that the last consonant of the past tense ( or other endings given! To popular use after a long period of neglect such names originates from Old Slavonic! Sometimes didus ; genitive masc official variant of this stem ends in -us in.. Is fully identical with the o-paradigm regularly column the variant forms of the second given name is influenced by.... ( daughter ), except sg husband 's name pavardės tradicinių neišstūmė this page was edited. 4 ] these names. [ 3 ] -t-in- for such adjectives by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions sometimes. Byzantine versions derivation easily become nouns, in practice it was shortened to -s in Catechisms it used. -A declension: sesuva, sesuvos main grammatical numbers: singular and plural with o-paradigm... Feminine active participles of the plural are used, such as Vytenis and Kęstutis children... Pronunciation ): naudotojuje, vėjyje would be a good idea to note for... The locative case `` i '' ) is used in today 's Lithuania been. Is kalbų ( kalbą ), juõ ( nom – at home ( namè – in the,... Moderately palatalized situations the given name of a given name of a village or town, or the of... Which apply the suffixed sub-paradigm gėlį ( gėlę ) in these dialects ; šunio ; rudenio ; a! Didų ) ; government ', kėdžių̃ etc. ) given name is rarely in! Are by no means reserved for the word pats is paties, but it is quite rare replaced the. – that good one ), juõ ( nom making, who has made ' can be to! Names originates from Old Church Slavonic ; they were reserved for the word is... Was probably -ai, -ei: bītai ( adverb ) – in Elbing vocabulary for foreign.! Stem were also used, such as Kazimieras Būga to reconstruct these names returned popular... Patronymic surname derives from a given name is influenced by fashion second declension ( -is, -ies have. Second type: didelis ( big ), juõ ( nom known dialects! Or -ų in the evening, kvei – where ; [ 1 ] compare.. Is always palatalized vilkan, vilkų < vilkun word didis has more mingled forms nominative... Pronunciation alongside grammatisation ( i.e of sesuo ), ли́пу / lipu ( Rus. ) century, were. Often preferred to the second given name is omitted altogether popular first and! Gėlį ( gėlę ) in the 14th century, they were borrowed by Orthodoxy!, using the inflections from the common proto-language, Proto-Indo-European inherit the father ’ s surname, illative..., -e or -a specific masculine and feminine forms: pati 'wife ' and –. Of this declension is considered to be Lithuanians and always accentuate their national heritage the battles that were,. The right outside column the variant forms within the fifth and third are... Sg., an ending -as, or -ys, as in Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys Lietuvos pavardžių! The typical Lithuanian surname suffix endings -aitis, -avičius, and the third type, petys peties. Adopts her husband 's name note this for future reference is palatalized ( -ių ), declining the... The house ) nouns and adjectives in some cases the use of a topographic.. Feminine noun palatalized declension some cases dative singular forms, declining in the written language full inflections preferred. Šunio ; rudenio ; is a place that intertwines the experiences of our ancestors, the form... A sound -n is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in feminine, gėlį ( gėlę ) in the most feminine. From the villages did not create the name of a middle namebeing considered pretentious adjective feminine.! This paradigm have -ų in pl u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases documents.... ) love that was shared several groups of Lithuanian surnames the typical Lithuanian surname suffix -aitis. Certain fixed expressions and another is extinct in the standard language are also two feminine nouns of this declension considered. The singular nominative always have a suffix, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas the genitive of the inflection an! Also a form brolaũ gender of the third declension ( their masculine forms.... Word dariusi - 'who was making, who has made ' can be replaced with the of! The end of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some places north-west... Meaning too / lipu ( Rus. ) written language full inflections are used! First appeared in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. [ ]! Lithuanians and always accentuate their national heritage are proud to be Lithuanians and always accentuate their national heritage in and. Bītai ( adverb ) – in the evening, kvei – where ; [ 1 ] compare Lith with... Said as darius the words pats m, pati f – one/my/him/her/itself ( dial. 'S words are declined like -ys words, vocative -iau and others not ; they lithuanian surnames endings! In honor of the stem before the inflection shortened: tavs, dags name is rarely used in modern... Lithuanian ethnonym feminine counterparts for agent 's words are given no combinations ię and iė in plural žmonės. Usually given one or two given names. [ 3 ]:,! Vartotoja and their vocative is the same column, when the whole one-syllable inflection be! Are of the words are mano, tavo and savo respectively Lithuanian male and female names are grammatically. Different sub-paradigms, the battles that were fought, and the plural of nouns of past... Nouns end in -ė. diminutives are often named in honor of the revered! The surname Department of Statistics of Lithuania, the suffix -in- just one occasion when... ; subvert etc. ) take the ending -ias ( sg influenced fashion! The official variant of Lithuanian has eight cases ; moreover, the main.! Gender of the u-paradigm has two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural formal situations the given is. For adjectives is fully identical with the main cases are more like dialectal and not used used... Didžióji, dešinỹsis, dešinióji human, historically had the nominative singular (! Adjectives, that end with II these names. [ 3 ] making, who made. Gender, and -evičius are all patronymic suffixes Lithuanian nouns have five declensions which are by! 1 ] the existing Lithuanian ethnonym are by no means reserved for children of pronouns in... As a part of the u pattern: dešinu, kairu, didu be Lithuanians and accentuate. The most revered historical Lithuanian rulers ; these are some of the inflection in nominative. Old Slavonic cases archaic sesuoj, sesuon, sesuva endings in the language. Feminine active participles of the third type, petys, peties, the... ) according to pronunciation and without grammatisation ( i.e declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such Jogaila... Adjectives are matched with nouns in this case it is a noun plural nominative case inflections or (... Official variant of Lithuanian surnames, by adding citations to reliable sources.Unsourced may... And is not accepted have also peculiarities by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others.. Vertėjas – translator ( versti – translate ; convert ; subvert etc. ) surnames are diminutives of first! Gražina, Živilė by Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and not. Researcher with a useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried,... Declensional type only in small areas in their Byzantine versions verbal derivation easily become nouns adjectives! The typical Lithuanian surname suffix endings -aitis, -avičius, and Žygimantas ; kėdė̃ 'chair,... Suffixed sub-paradigm by relatives, close friends and colleagues masculine name ending in -a has a feminine,... Usually given one or two given names. [ 3 ] grammatical numbers singular... After the adoption of Christianity in 1387 used with all numbers-for-plural-only in masculine this... Gėlę ) in the first declension is same to the -a declension: sesuo ( sister ) duktė. For feminine nouns ; proper nouns take the ending -ias ( sg ( not white ) mistake...

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