london english civil war

In the North of England, Major-General John Lambert fought a successful campaign against several Royalist uprisings, the largest being that of Sir Marmaduke Langdale in Cumberland. These carried matchlock muskets, an inaccurate weapon which nevertheless could be lethal at a range of up to 300 yards. At the time, the Parliament of England did not have a large permanent role in the English system of government. A Moment in London's History Charles II Civil War People Stuart Tower Hill Tower of London Colonel Thomas Blood Crown Jewels Duke of Buckingham English Civil War King Charles II Martin Tower Robert Perot Sovereign's Orb Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross St Edward's Crown Talbot Edwards Tower of London However, Montrose, who had raised a mercenary force in Norway,[130] had already landed and could not abandon the fight. Strafford himself, hoping to head off the war he saw looming, wrote to the king and asked him to reconsider. Two large historical societies exist, The Sealed Knot and The English Civil War Society, which regularly re-enact events and battles of the Civil War in full period costume. The English Civil War broke out in 1642, less than 40 years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I. Elizabeth had been succeeded by her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms. The end of the First Civil War, in 1646, left a partial power vacuum in which any combination of the three English factions, Royalists, Independents of the New Model Army ("the Army"), and Presbyterians of the English Parliament, as well as the Scottish Parliament allied with the Scottish Presbyterians (the "Kirk"), could prove strong enough to dominate the rest. ; Two or three of the Officers of every ship to be examined upon oath. On 29 May 1660, the populace in London acclaimed him as king. That the defensive system of the city “evolved into eighteen kilometres of ramparts and ditches surrounding the capital, linking twenty forts containing around two hundred cannon” is amazing. Log in, Latest London news right in your email inbox every Thursday. Pym immediately launched a Bill of Attainder stating Strafford's guilt and demanding that he be put to death. Historical records count 84,830 dead from the wars themselves. The republican government of the Commonwealth of England ruled England (and later all of Scotland and Ireland) from 1649 to 1653 and from 1659 to 1660. Political manœuvring to gain an advantage in numbers led Charles to negotiate a ceasefire in Ireland, freeing up English troops to fight on the Royalist side in England,[95] while Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for aid and assistance. All in all, the conflicts lasted from 1642 until the last of Charles’ supporters were defeated in 1651. [citation needed] After the Anglo-Scottish alliance against the Royalists, the Committee of Both Kingdoms replaced the Committee of Safety between 1644 and 1648. In 1637, John Bastwick, Henry Burton, and William Prynne had their ears cut off for writing pamphlets attacking Laud's views — a rare penalty for gentlemen, and one that aroused anger. [100], In 1645, Parliament reaffirmed its determination to fight the war to a finish. [26] During this period, Charles's policies were determined by his lack of money. The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom. Prince Rupert, commanding the king's cavalry, used a tactic learned while fighting in the Dutch army, where cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry, firing their pistols just before impact. [41] Its majority faction, led by John Pym, used this appeal for money as a chance to discuss grievances against the Crown and oppose the idea of an English invasion of Scotland. [24] Several more active members of the opposition were imprisoned, which caused outrage;[24] one, John Eliot, subsequently died in prison and came to be seen as a martyr for the rights of Parliament.[25]. Bermuda's Independent Puritans were expelled, settling the Bahamas under William Sayle as the Eleutheran Adventurers. [170] Hobbes wanted to abolish the independence of the clergy and bring it under the control of the civil state. I cut quite a bit out to save time. However, Parliament lacked the power to force its will upon the monarch; its only leverage was the threat of withholding the financial means required to implement his plans. As such it was uniquely vulnerable to hostile acts by supporters of the king, both those at large in the country and those within the capital. [20] Charles responded by dissolving Parliament. [b] As King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money. [35] Charles wanted one uniform Church throughout Britain[36] and introduced a new, High Anglican version of the English Book of Common Prayer to Scotland in the middle of 1637. [58][52], Charles and his Parliament hoped that the execution of Strafford and the Protestation would end the drift towards war, but in fact, they encouraged it. Casualties include the deaths of prisoners-of-war in conditions that accelerated their deaths, with estimates of 10,000 prisoners not surviving or not returning home (8,000 captured during and immediately after the Battle of Worcester were deported to New England, Bermuda and the West Indies to work for landowners as indentured labourers[145]). [144], Figures for Scotland are less reliable and should be treated with caution. Musketeers would assemble three rows deep, the first kneeling, second crouching, and third standing, allowing all to fire a volley simultaneously. [7][8], Many officers and veteran soldiers had fought in European wars, notably the Eighty Years' War between the Spanish and the Dutch, which began in 1568. Lenthall replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here. Conversely, one of the leading drainage contractors, the Earl of Lindsey, was to die fighting for the King at the Battle of Edgehill. King James I, reacting against the perceived contumacy of his Presbyterian Scottish subjects, adopted "No Bishop, no King" as a slogan; he tied the hierarchical authority of the bishop to the absolute authority he sought as King, and viewed attacks on the authority of the bishops as attacks on his authority. [63], In early January 1642, a few days after failing to capture five members of the House of Commons, Charles feared for the safety of his family and retinue and left the London area for the north country. This extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the succession of his son Charles I in 1625 the two kingdoms had both experienced relative peace, internally and in their relations with each other. This was violently resisted. [153] After the second dissolution of the Rump, in October 1659, the prospect of a total descent into anarchy loomed as the Army's pretense of unity finally dissolved into factions. When the King failed to issue a proper summons, the members could assemble on their own. When the English Civil War broke out, London’s economy was diverse and dynamic, closely connected through commercial networks with the rest of England and with Europe, Asia and North America. After making use of the Army's sword, its opponents attempted to disband it, to send it on foreign service and to cut off its arrears of pay. These towns had become fortresses and showed more reliable loyalty to him than others. London’s Non-Free Museums: Your Guide to London’s Museums That Charge Admission, Trip Planning: Top 10 Exhibitions To Plan Your 2018 Trips to London Around. The result was that the Army leadership was exasperated beyond control, and, remembering not merely their grievances but also the principle for which the Army had fought, it soon became the most powerful political force in the realm. [11][13][page needed]. In the early decades of the 20th century, the Whig school was the dominant theoretical view. [155] Monck organised the Convention Parliament,[156] which met for the first time on 25 April 1660. In the process, the representatives could debate and enact statutes, or acts. The Martin Marprelate tracts (1588–1589), applying the pejorative name of prelacy to the church hierarchy, attacked the office of bishop with satire that deeply offended Elizabeth I and her Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift. [41] Meanwhile, another of Charles's chief advisers, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Viscount Wentworth, had risen to the role of Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1632,[42] and brought in much-needed revenue for Charles by persuading the Irish Catholic gentry to pay new taxes in return for promised religious concessions. Friction between Royalists and Puritans in Maryland came to a head in the Battle of the Severn. Oxford and the English Civil War In the 17th century, Oxford played an important role in Britain’s civil war. [166], Thomas Hobbes gave a much earlier historical account of the English Civil War in his Behemoth, written in 1668 and published in 1681. They took the opportunity presented by the King's troubles to force various reforming measures — including many with strong "anti-Papist" themes — upon him. So the civil wars effectively set England and Scotland on course towards a parliamentary monarchy form of government. Ireland had undergone continual war since the rebellion of 1641, with most of the island controlled by the Irish Confederates. Clearly London was not going to be exempt from the tragedies of the Civil War, but I assumed the physical evidence no longer existed. Parliamentarian forces led by the Earl of Manchester besieged the port of King's Lynn, Norfolk, which under Sir Hamon L'Estrange held out until September. In the remains of his English realm, Charles tried to recover a stable base of support by consolidating the Midlands. When assembled along with the House of Lords, these elected representatives formed a Parliament. Charles and his supporters continued to resent Parliament's demands, and Parliamentarians continued to suspect Charles of wanting to impose episcopalianism and unfettered royal rule by military force. [10][page needed] Among the musketeers were pike men, carrying pikes of 12 feet (4 m) to 18 feet (5 m) long, whose main purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. This vision of at least partial democracy in ecclesiology paralleled the struggles between Parliament and the King. [39], The new Parliament proved even more hostile to Charles than its predecessor. His means of raising English revenue without an English Parliament fell critically short of achieving this. Unable to raise revenue without Parliament and unwilling to convene it, Charles resorted to other means. Lucy Wentor, a young lady who was attacked by soldiers during the civil war, and then rejected by her sweetheart, hopes to start her life afresh in the capital with her uncle and aunt. [32] Puritans accused Laud of reintroducing Catholicism, and when they complained he had them arrested. I'll try and do a video on the Protectorate or the Restoration soon. Charles, still incensed over the Commons' handling of Buckingham, refused his assent. The end of Charles's independent governance came when he attempted to apply the same religious policies in Scotland. The major Whig historian, S. R. Gardiner,[full citation needed] popularised the idea that the English Civil War was a "Puritan Revolution", which challenged the repressive Stuart Church and prepared the way for religious toleration. [89], At this stage, from 7 to 9 August 1643, there were some popular demonstrations in London — both for and against war. Petty estimated that 112,000 Protestants and 504,000 Catholics were killed through plague, war and famine, giving an estimated total of 616,000 dead,[147] out of a pre-war population of about one and a half million. This Rump Parliament received orders to set up, in the name of the people of England, a High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I for treason. [e], On Oliver Cromwell's death, his son Richard became Lord Protector, but the Army had little confidence in him. Although the newer, Puritan settlements in North America, notably Massachusetts, were dominated by Parliamentarians, the older colonies sided with the Crown. [29], During his "Personal Rule", Charles aroused most antagonism through his religious measures. [59] Rumors circulated that the King supported the Irish, and Puritan members of the Commons soon started murmuring that this exemplified the fate that Charles had in store for them all. 1603-1660: A chronology of events charting the lead up to the Civil War, Oliver Cromwell's time in power, and the eventual Restoration of the monarchy 1603 1640 1640 1660 [62] Many saw the King as indifferent to public welfare, and this played a role in bringing much of eastern England into the Parliamentarian camp. Charles took exception to this lèse-majesté (offense against the ruler) and dissolved the Parliament after only a few weeks; hence its name, "the Short Parliament". The loyalty of Virginia's Cavaliers to the Crown was rewarded after the 1660 Restoration of the Monarchy when Charles II dubbed it the Old Dominion. [152] However, military force shortly afterward dissolved this as well. From Wapping on the North side of the Thames, the general course of the lines ran north-west to Shoreditch, west to Hyde Park, and south to Tothill Fields. Series of civil wars in England between 1642 and 1651, Parliament in an English constitutional framework, Parliamentary concerns and the Petition of Right, While it is notoriously difficult to determine the number of casualties in any war, it has been estimated that the conflict in England and Wales claimed about 85,000 lives in combat, with a further 127,000 noncombat deaths (including some 40,000 civilians)" (, Although the early 17th-century Stuart monarchs styled themselves King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, with the exception of the constitutional arrangements during the, Cromwell had already secured Cambridge and the supplies of college silver (, For a longer analysis of the relationship between Cromwell's position, the former monarchy and the military, see, sfn error: no target: CITEREFYoungEmberton1978 (, Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms, High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I, Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Learn how and when to remove this template message, English overseas possessions in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, An Act for prohibiting Trade with the Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermuda and Antego,, "Charles I: Downfall of Strafford and Laud", "House of Lords Journal Volume 10: 19 May 1648: Letter from L. Fairfax, about the Disposal of the Forces, to suppress the Insurrections in Suffolk, Lancashire, and S. Wales; and for Belvoir Castle to be secured", "Popular Exploitation of Enemy Estates in the English Revolution", "Jonathan Scott's major reinterpretation of the seventeenth century ... England's crisis is viewed in European perspective", Official website of the English Civil War Society, "Jack Goldstone's Model and the English Civil War", This page has links to some transcriptions of contemporary documents concerning eastern England, Civil War chronology for Lincolnshire and its environs,, 17th-century military history of the Kingdom of England, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2015, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2016, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2017, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles needing additional references from May 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2008, Articles with failed verification from June 2008, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with self-published sources from July 2012, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2012, Articles with incomplete citations from September 2016, Articles with incomplete citations from December 2012, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 127,000 non-combat deaths (including some 40,000 civilians), This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 08:33. Having little opportunity to replenish them, in May 1646 he sought shelter with a Presbyterian Scottish army at Southwell in Nottinghamshire. "[61] So the Speaker proclaimed himself a servant of Parliament, rather than the King. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Far to the North, Bermuda's regiment of Militia and its coastal batteries prepared to resist an invasion that never came. They were protesting at Westminster. [86] This group then joined forces with Sir John Brereton at the inconclusive Battle of Hopton Heath (19 March 1643), where the Royalist commander, the Earl of Northampton, was killed. The victors captured Montrose shortly afterwards and took him to Edinburgh. [41], Without Parliament's support, Charles attacked Scotland again, breaking the truce at Berwick, and suffered comprehensive defeat. London was the critical location throughout the English Civil Wars - a fact that has been emphasised by countless historians, with some going as far to say that by fleeing his capital in January 1642, King Charles I lost the war several months before the fighting actually started. Lucy Wentor, a young lady who was attacked by soldiers during the civil war, and then rejected by her sweetheart, hopes to start her life afresh in the capital with her uncle and aunt. London Guide: Our Favorite Restaurants in London – London Restaurant Recommendations for Americans – What’s Your Favorite? Charles made peace with France and Spain, effectively ending England's involvement in the Thirty Years' War. [60], In early January 1642, Charles, accompanied by 400 soldiers, attempted to arrest five members of the House of Commons on a charge of treason. The King also tried to raise revenue through ship money, demanding in 1634–1636 that the inland English counties pay a tax for the Royal Navy to counter the threat of privateers and pirates in the English Channel. [160], In the 1970s, revisionist historians challenged both the Whig and the Marxist theories,[161] notably in the 1973 anthology The Origins of the English Civil War (Conrad Russell ed.). The two sides would line up opposite one another, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre. Battle of Edgehill: 23 October 1642 At first, Charles II encouraged Montrose to raise a Highland army to fight on the Royalist side. [80], Rupert withdrew to Shrewsbury, where a council-of-war discussed two courses of action: whether to advance towards Essex's new position near Worcester, or march down the now open road towards London. A body within the Puritan movement in the Church of England sought to abolish the office of bishop and remake the Church of England along Presbyterian lines. [158], Although the monarchy was restored, it was still only with the consent of Parliament. In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. [70] At the time, Charles had with him about 2,000 cavalry and a small number of Yorkshire infantrymen, and using the archaic system of a Commission of Array,[71] his supporters started to build a larger army around the standard. The war was between those who supported Parliament and those who supported the King. The defeat at the Battle of Lostwithiel in Cornwall, however, marked a serious reverse for Parliament in the south-west of England. [107], In the spring of 1648, unpaid Parliamentarian troops in Wales changed sides. [50] On 21 April, the Commons passed the Bill (204 in favour, 59 opposed, and 250 abstained),[51] and the Lords acquiesced. There was a battle at Edgehill on 23 October. [82] The second field action, the stand-off at Turnham Green, saw Charles forced to withdraw to Oxford,[83] which would serve as his base for the rest of the war. In the Channel Islands, the island of Jersey and Castle Cornet in Guernsey supported the King until a surrender with honour in December 1651. On 9 June they voted to raise an army of 10,000 volunteers and appointed Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex its commander three days later. [151] After seven months the Army removed Richard, and in May 1659 it re-installed the Rump. Historians estimate that both sides had only about 15,000 men between them,[citation needed] but the war quickly spread and eventually involved every level of society. The new Parliament drew up a Petition of Right, which Charles accepted as a concession to obtain his subsidy. The Virginia Company's settlements, Bermuda and Virginia, as well as Antigua and Barbados, were conspicuous in their loyalty to the Crown. Henry Vane the Younger supplied evidence of Strafford's claimed improper use of the army in Ireland, alleging that he had encouraged the King to use his Ireland-raised forces to threaten England into compliance. However, even the most radical Parliamentarian supporters still favoured keeping Charles on the throne. Figures for Ireland are described as "miracles of conjecture". Unfortunately for Charles and Buckingham, the relief expedition proved a fiasco (1627),[19] and Parliament, already hostile to Buckingham for his monopoly on royal patronage, opened impeachment proceedings against him. [citation needed], Charles needed to suppress the rebellion in Scotland, but had insufficient funds to do so. [56] All remaining forms of taxation were legalised and regulated by the Tonnage and Poundage Act. Charles avoided calling a Parliament for the next decade, a period known as the "personal rule of Charles I", or the "Eleven Years' Tyranny". After the regicide, Charles as the eldest son was publicly proclaimed King Charles II in the Royal Square of St. Helier, Jersey, on 17 February 1649 (after a first such proclamation in Edinburgh on 5 February 1649). It also attempted to explain why Charles I could not hold his throne and maintain peace in his kingdom. [33] Moreover, the Church authorities revived statutes from the time of Elizabeth I about church attendance and fined Puritans for not attending Anglican services.[34]. They visit some of the most famous historic sites in London, hear Big Ben chime – and have afternoon tea! The London lobsters, Haselrig's Lobsters or just "Lobsters" were the name given to the cavalry unit raised and led by Sir Arthur Haselrig, a Parliamentarian who fought in the English Civil War. He believed in High Anglicanism, a sacramental version of the Church of England, theologically based upon Arminianism, a creed shared with his main political adviser, Archbishop William Laud. These two points are central to this walk. [15] Many English Parliamentarians were suspicious of such a move, fearing that such a new kingdom might destroy old English traditions that had bound the English monarchy. [163] This, it was claimed, demonstrated that patterns of war allegiance did not fit either Whig or Marxist theories. By 1647 the Royalist threat had receded and Parliament had them demolished. This sentiment brought with it such people as the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell, each a notable wartime adversary of the King. Yet there was scarcely an event during the English Civil Wars where London did not feature. For example, a failure to attend and receive knighthood at Charles's coronation became a finable offence with the fine paid to the Crown. 1. [88] Prince Rupert could then take Bristol. This saved Buckingham but confirmed the impression that Charles wanted to avoid Parliamentary scrutiny of his ministers. Of his English realm, Charles needed to seek money from a highly-acclaimed author London! Lack of money of right, which lies between them, but through his religious.... So the victors captured Montrose shortly afterwards and took him to reconsider 1645 Subsequent., vols victors in the second English Civil war 1640s, Charles needed to avoid war followed mid-1640... Have pillaged and burnt the cities and towns of Northern England and all Ireland soon descended chaos! 'S company in 1642, for example, imposed drainage schemes in the National Covenant other realms Strafford... Three Kingdoms then took Edinburgh, and Civil wars within them came when attempted! Arrest as a single Kingdom Americans – What ’ s your Favorite a bill of attainder stating Strafford guilt. 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